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Security Alert



Alert: – Medical Advisory on OpenClinic GA Software Vulnerabilities. 2020-09-18

Background:
OpenClinic GA is an open-source software integrated hospitals information management system and multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in OpenClinic GA, the most severe of which could allow for remote code execution. Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could allow an attacker to bypass authentication, discover restricted information, view/manipulate restricted database information, and/or execute malicious code.

Vulnerabilities overview:
1. Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel: an attacker may bypass client-side access controls or use a crafted request to initiate a session with limited functionality, which may allow execution of admin functions such as SQL queries.
2. Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts: an attacker can bypass the system’s account lockout protection, which may allow brute force password attacks.
3. Improper Authentication: an authentication mechanism within the system does not contain sufficient complexity to protect against brute force attacks, which may allow unauthorized users to access the system after no more than a fixed maximum number of attempts.
4. Missing Authorization: The system does not properly check permissions before executing SQL queries, which may allow a low-privilege user to access privileged information.
5. Execution with Unnecessary Privileges: a low-privilege user may use SQL syntax to write arbitrary files to the server, which may allow the execution of arbitrary commands.
6. Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type: The system does not properly verify uploaded files, which may allow a low-privilege user to upload and execute arbitrary files on the system.
7. Improper limitation of a pathname to a restricted directory (Path Traversal): the system includes arbitrary local files specified within its parameter and executes some files, which may allow disclosure of sensitive files or the execution of malicious uploaded files.
8. Improper Authorization: an attacker may bypass permission/authorization checks by ignoring the redirect of a permission failure, which may allow unauthorized execution of commands.
9. Improper neutralization of input during web page generation (Cross-site Scripting): the system does not properly neutralize user-controllable input, which may allow the execution of malicious code within the user’s browser.
10. Use of Unmaintained Third-Party Components: the system contains third-party software versions that are end-of-life and contain known vulnerabilities, which may allow remote code execution.
11. Insufficiently Protected Credentials: the system stores passwords using inadequate hashing complexity, which may allow an attacker to recover passwords using known password cracking techniques.
12. Hidden Functionality: The system contains a hidden default user account that may be accessed if an administrator has not expressly turned off this account, which may allow an attacker to login and execute arbitrary commands.
Successful exploitation of the most severe of these vulnerabilities could result in an attacker gaining the same privileges as the logged on user. Depending on the privileges associated with the user, an attacker could then install programs view, change, or data or create new accounts with full user rights. Users whose accounts are configured to have fewer user rights on the system could be less impacted than those who operate with administrative user rights

Vulnerable or affected systems:
The following versions of OpenClinic GA, an open-source integrated hospital information management system, are affected:
• OpenClinic GA Version 5.09.02
• OpenClinic GA Version 5.89.05b

Solution (Recommendations):

Rw-CSIRT is strongly recommending users and IT administrators to:
1. Upgrade to the latest version to ensure you have all current fixes.
2. Take defensive measures to minimize the risk of exploitation of this vulnerability. Specifically, users should:
• Apply the Principle of Least Privilege to all systems and services.
• Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet
• Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and isolate them from the business network.
• When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should be d to the most current version available. Also recognize that VPN is only as secure as the connected devices.
3. Perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.
4. Take the following measures to protect themselves from social engineering attacks:
• Run all software as a non-privileged user (one without administrative rights) to diminish the effects of a successful attack. Do not run software “as Administrator” option if not necessary.
• Remind all users not to visit untrusted websites or follow links provided by unknown or untrusted sources.
• Inform and educate users regarding threats posed by hypertext links contained in emails or attachments especially from untrusted sources
• Apply the Principle of Least Privilege to all systems and services.
Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to NCSA/Rw-CSIRT for tracking and correlation against other incidents.
Call 4045 or write to security@risa.gov.rw

References:
https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ics/advisories/icsma-20-184-01
- Previous Alert: – Microsoft Products Critical Patches, issued – September 08, 2020
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